Hubble Space Telescope is the world's first space telescope, launched on April 24, 1990. Since then it has helped scientists to discover numerous new planets, stars, galaxies. But have you ever wondered - why it is stationed in space, not on the ground.
The universe sends us information in the form of electromagnetic wave. The wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 10 - 6 nm to 100km. The more we can detect them the more we learn about the universe. There are 3 major advantages of any space telescope.
Our earth is surrounded by a thick layer of atmosphere which can alter or block electromagnetic waves coming from the universe. For instance, UV light is blocked by the Ozone layer. X rays and Gamma Rays are blocked by the ionosphere. That's why scientists decided to send it just above the earth atmosphere to get a better view of the unknown universe.
Hubble Space Telescope is equipped with lots of sensors, mirrors and lenses that can detect those waves. All waves within this range contain information about the universe. If the telescope were on the ground those expensive pieces of equipment could be damaged due to natural weathering process or bacterial & fungal infection.
Hubble has something known as the Continuous Viewing Zone (CVZ). This is a region of the sky which is never obscured by the Earth, Moon, Sun, etc. as Hubble orbits. As the name implies, it allows for continuous viewing - along with an array of stabilizers, it can gaze for days without interruption.